In the central part of Western Anatolia, is located within the Gediz Graben. Basement rock units in the region; Menderes Massif and the Izmir-Ankara zone of rocks. For an asymmetric graben that the Gediz graben, Turgutlu basin located in the northern and southern parts of the Neogene sediments vary greatly. Working in the field of Lower-Middle Miocene formation is represented by Turgutlu. Pliocene period in the northern part of the study Kanlitep alanine formation in the southern part is represented by the formation Halilbeyli.
The youngest Neogene sediments alanine seen in the southern part of the Pliocene-Pleistocene fluvial coarse grained clastics formation constitute Kupyartep old. Normal faults in the field of study the position of the sedimentary sequences are largely denetlemis.
The area of 1/25.000 scale topography map d3 and c4 Izmir-K19, L19, a2 and b1 takes place in the layout. Turgutlu Manisa Ili district of Izmir-Ankara highway in northern and southern portions of the surface covers 600 km2 (*).
Yerbuldur the map (*)
Turgutlu Neogene basins of the Western Anatolia in the central portion located east-west trending, length of 140 km and width about 10-15 km, towards the south concave arc-shaped major sedimentary area is one of the Gediz Graben west end of the cut is.
Turgutlu sedimentary basin located in the northern and southern parts of the units vary. Taking into account this situation, which are studied in this work area geologic maps of the northern and southern parts of the basin as has been discussed in two parts (**). Turgutlu Neogene sediments around the basement rock units in the northern part (Menderes Massif and the Izmir-Ankara Zone) overlies the southern section (Menderes Massif) is limited tectonics. Neogene, in the northern part; with a typical alluvial fan deposits of Pliocene formation as Kanlitep ayirtlanmis and has been examined.
Formation at the base, starting with fluvial coarse clastic material toward the upper part of the grain size is smaller and lateral passage through resumes and mudstone. These sediments unconformably on older Quaternary alluvial deposits of travertine and comes. Northern part of the youngest sediments and the Menderes Massif as well as the Izmir-Ankara Zone the rocks of the Quaternary till today plucked and housed, gravel, sand and clay-sized, irregular, less fastened with sediments consisting of alluvial deposits constitute.
Buy Neogene sequence in the southern part of the Lower-Middle Miocene aged, çökelmis environment of the lake, towards the bottom up, starting from the coarse grained with fine crumbs begin with Turgutlu formation is ongoing. Turgutlu changing streaming media to the media after the deposition of the formation and coarse grained clastics highly influenced fluvial featured Halilbeyli formation of Pliocene Turgutlu formation is unconformably on çökelmis. As the youngest in the southern part of the Neogene sediments, fluvial coarse grained clastics Kupyartep formation, the formation unconformably on Halilbeyli is located. The southern part of the alluvial deposits constitute the youngest sediments.
The geology of the northern part
Units of the Menderes Massif (MM)
Argillaceous rocks of the Menderes Massif communities, clayey-sandy and sandy sedimentary metamorphic rocks represent derivatives. The Menderes Massif crystalline schists and limestones units. Schists; dark green-dun-colored, medium-well sistozitel and shows a structure which places the surface must decomposition. These rocks in microscopy; Under porfiroblastic textures, quartz, albite, muscovite, biotite and opaque minerals has been detected. Crystallized limestones in the gray-white color, solid They are made. Made in microscopy, mosaic texture was determined es-grained crystalline calcite.
Izmir-Ankara Zone (IAZ)
Turgutlu located north of the "Izmir-Ankara Zone" (Brinkmann, 1966) known as the Mesozoic rock units, the Eocene-Oligocene in the Menderes Massif through the transition completed their massive and the last major metamorphism that causes the Lycian nappes residues (Candan 1994) . Working in the field, which is composed of ophiolitic rocks of the Menderes Massif overlying rock units are tectonically. Izmir-Ankara Zone rocks of units; Çaldağ and approximately north-south trending in the vicinity of serpentinite, harzburgite and serpantinlesmis of crystallized limestone unit is enchanted places are cut by veins spilitic dolerite and ofisferit.
Neogene, sedimentary units
Kanlitep formation (Tk) - Kanlitep formation block, gravel and sand-sized material starts with petrified forms. Upper gravel, sand and mudstone with dimensional lateral passage by this staff is richer (***). The formation consists predominantly of sandstone least peklesmis Pebble Island. Block and gravel ophiolite associations belonging to the origin of the more basic rock group also refers to both. During roughly the multiplicity of units serpentinite, harzburgite, mica schist, limestone and chert shaped. Parts tutturulmamis or less in makriks grit is usually fastened with.
Sandstones and conglomerates of the yellowish-brown, greenish gray and reddish in color. Streams of the basement rocks belonging to the various sizes of segments in the basic topography and the energy of the force depending on the massif on the outskirts store the resulting Kanlitep formation base of the lithology of the thickness of these parameters vary depending on the will. Kanlitep formation lies unconformably on the following basic units. If the upper part of the formation of the principal sandstone, gravelly sandstone with lesser conglomerate lithologies-sandstone with a few and locally carbonaceous, sandy marl and claystone is composed of the level. As with environmental Neogene basins, fossil-free formation of Kanlitep, depending on the studies made in the Gediz Graben, Pliocene age (YUSUFOĞLU, 1996) are given.
Cambazli travertine formation outcrop in the vicinity of the village, mainly involving Turgutlu Neogene basins of the western end of the Gediz graben is cut. Turgutlu and about 10 km northeast of the Cambazli located in travertine, usually 50 to 200 m long and 10-60 m in thickness in bands spread in an area of 5 km2 show.
The youngest sediments in the northern part developed into streams depending loose-textured alluvial creates. These alluvial deposits of the Menderes Massif and both belong to the Izmir-Ankara Zone ultramafic rocks plucked from the Quaternary and housed until today, gravel, sand and clay-sized, irregular deposits are fastened with less.
The geology of the southern part of
Units of the Menderes Massif (MM)
Alanine crystalline rocks in the southern part of the Menderes Massif, as in the northern section greenschist facies metamorphism spent quite schists, calc and is composed of crystallized limestones.
Schists; Corrupt dark green-brownish shades, medium-well sistozitel and shows a structure which places should decomposition. Sister in the microscopy; the tissue under fog, "quartz-muscovite-albitgranat sister" - "quartz-albite-muskovitbiotit sister" - "quartz-albite-sericite sister" s can be seen that consists of.
Carbonate rocks of the Menderes Massif; samples collected throughout the calc, crystalline and semi-crystalline limestones are defined as. Which exists in massive calc grayish color shades of white and gray and dirty, they are foliated görünümesahip.
The mineral sequences of calc-phlogopite-quartz-calcite minerals muskovitopak. Crystalline and semi-crystalline limestone massif is often slight off-white color. In the observations made in a polarizing microscope, angular-yarikösel of the rock, ese one-dimensional, must unite with each other very well from calcite crystals occurs, it is understood.
Neogene, sedimentary units
Turgutlu formation (Tt) - Formation at the base, as the principal ruling brownish, gray in color, blocky conglomerate, the conglomerate gravelly sandstone and sandstone sediments and less erratic start with. Block and origin of pebbles rocks of the Menderes Massif belongs to. During roughly the multitude, mica schist, calc, is a form of crystallized limestone and chert. Parts coarse sand matrix, is well fastened with. The dominant component of the conglomerate unit, usually yellowish dun-colored poorly sorted medium is too thick uneven layer. Conglomerate containing compounds to those derived from metamorphic rocks, grain is supported, which consists of fine sand covers intermediate. Less peklesmis of micaceous sandstones, reddish brown and yellowish gray in color change is not usually a huge grain of sand. Block dimensional elements do not cover large areas.
Turgutlu to the formation of the intermediate level, gravelly sandstone and sandstone and is dominant. Pebble Island sandstone levels are usually in the form of irregular, gray, yellow to brown-reddish colored. Gravel grains, often angular, less than half a round, fastened with weak-to-moderate and coarse sand matrix is usually 0.5-3 cm sized components within those shaped. Tutturulmamis well as pebbles, and even more so at lower levels within the general sections fastened with good pebble discontinuous levels are found in some localities.
Sandstones, gray green color, thin to medium layering evident and is fastened with a weak middle. Menderes Massif rocks sandstones including those belonging to the components are weak-to-moderate boylanmis. Uncertain of graded sandstone being shadowed places in the small-scale trough-shaped cross-stratification is developed.
Turgutlu in the upper levels of the formation, of mudstone, sandstone and claystone with interbedded carbonate levels are located. Used in the manufacture of brick and tile, thickness varies between 1-8 m, the band Turgutlu formation of the structure of the clay content levels are within these levels. Turgutlu years of training in the region; KOÇYİĞİT et al., (1999); Seyitoğlu and Scott (1996), Yilmaz et al., (1997, 2000) based on the studies made by the Lower-Middle Miocene has been considered.
Halilbeyli formation (Th)-Formation principal, the block-conglomerate, sandstone and mudstone lithologies rarely occurs. Conglomerates principal is reddish-brown and yellowish-brown. Terrestrial regular layering of the conglomerate, peklesmis generally weak, poorly sorted. Intermediate is formed from fine sand and mud. Derived mainly from the pebbles of metamorphic rocks contain those components. According to them during the multitude, mica, of quartz, quartzite and marble piece is made up of. The grains are usually angular and semi-angular, fine gravel between the block size is within the boundaries. Fastened with weak sandstone and mudstone intercalations, locally conglomerate located in the section. The sandstones are usually brownish, fastened with weak, medium to coarse grained and is locally Pebble Island. Grain grading, planar and cross stratification and terrestrial mudstone interbeds, sandstone sedimentary structures that are commonplace in cross-section. Halilbeyli of formation of sedimentary components reflecting off of components, texture and stratigraphic characteristics of the lateral change, then you open showing the predominant south to the north, alluvial fan in the development environment requires a deposition.
Halilbeyli of the formation of sedimentary deposits located within the structure of nutrition Specifies that usually advanced from the south to the north. Formation of Halilbeyli Turgutlu formation of sediments unconformably deposited at the top of the unit. The age of this formation, the environment in the Neogene units studies were shown to be correlated with the results is given in the Pliocene (Açıkalın and Ertok, 1981; Yilmaz et al., 1997 and 2000; Sözbilir, 2001; Booth, 2001).
Kupyartep formation (Tk)-Kupyartep the formation of conglomerate, sandstone and mudstone consisting of an alternation has come. Formation of the dominant conglomerate prominent thick, semi-parallel layers, the weak-very weak sorted, grain-supported and mud in the matrix is located 1 cm from 15 cm to up-sized, poorly sorted, yellowish brown, gray and red colors. Grains as the dominant underlying massive gneiss, quartzite and sister were compiled from (****). Semi-yuvarlaklasmis medium-coarse gravel-sized grains are frequently evolving conglomerate grain orientation in the top right grain size of the stack and layer thickness increases.
Located on the lower level of the formation of conglomerates tutturulmamis or less are fastened with view. Right to the upper levels of gray, silty mudstones and sandstones with rare disrupt alternations are observed.
A component of Kupyartep formasyonundak içökel, texture and stratigraphic features and range of G and GD intercalated with alluvial fan fed by braided fluvial environment reflects. Kupyartep lower Halilbeyli formation of low-angle unconformity top of the formation. Kupyartep formation, (Yilmaz et al 1997 and 2000) with the unit named as Sardar group shows similar lithological features. For this reason, the formation of Pliocene-Pleistocene age Kupyartep is given.
The youngest sedimentary unit, silt, rocks belonging to the plucked and housed Menderes Massif gravel, sand and clay size, fastened with materials occur at irregular. During the Gediz River and other streams including not Irlam is in bed wide extension of tens. The approximate thickness of the alluvial plains in the middle is around 250 m.
Turgutlu, is located in the Gediz Graben contains. Occur due to the asymmetry of the graben structure Turgutlu Basin located in the northern and southern parts of the Neogene sediments vary.
Basic rock units; Menderes Massif crystalline rocks of the Izmir-Ankara zone ophiolite rocks. Principal of the Menderes Massif in greenschist facies metamorphic rocks, schists and crystalline limestones spent quite. Others, which are the bedrock of the Izmir-Ankara zone ophiolite rock units in the Eocene-Oligocene transition out of the Menderes Massif and completed the last major metamorphism causing massive ruins of Lycian nappes.
Working alanine units of the Menderes Massif in both sections, while the Izmir-Ankara Zone rocks takes place only in the northern part. The studies done in the sedimentary basin turgutlu the basin, has started to fill in the Lower-Middle Miocene.
Lower-middle Miocene circuit is represented by Turgutlu formation. Formation at the base of blocky conglomerate, the conglomerate, sandstone, sandstone lithologies and up towards the press continues shrinking grain size. Formation of the upper levels of mudstone, carbonaceous sandstone and claystone-clayey levels constitute. Fine grained sediments in the upper part of the formation contained in Viviporus (to Falud) fossil indicates deposition was made in the lake environment. Pliocene period in the area of the lake environment is highly influenced by the changing stream environment. In the field, Kanlitep Pliocene formation in the northern part of the circuit, while the southern part is represented by Halilbeyli formation. Which is a typical alluvial fan sediments deposited during formation Kanlitep instance, depending on the topography and the material is depolanmis. From top to bottom beginning with the correct block size gravel and sand-sized material in the materials of the lateral passage continues with mudstone.
Halilbeyli principal block the formation of conglomerate, sandstone and mudstone lithologies rarely occurs. Pliocene sediments that fill the basin sediments in the circuit fault system has suffered flooding AmAlArA. Working in the field gradients of these faults is around 50-65 °. ATM faults are in amounts varying between 2-6 m. NW trending fault system that places are cut by antithetic faults. Turgutlu the youngest Neogene basins seen in the southern part of the Pliocene-Pleistocene fluvial coarse grained clastics formation constitute Kupyartep old.
Working in the field is the youngest sediments and alluvial travertine only those located in the northern part. Of the Menderes Massif rocks and alluvial deposits in the Izmir-Ankara Zone and housed rocks plucked from the gravel, sand and clay-sized materials, irregular shapes are fastened with less. Alluvium thickness of approximately 250 m.
Source: Gursel BURNS, Fullback design UZ, Honorary Esenli